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Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study. / Brainard, Julii; D'hondt, Rob; Ali, Engy; Van den Bergh, Rafael; De Weggheleire, Anja; Baudot, Yves; Patigny, Frederic; Lambert, Vincent; Zachariah, Rony; Maes, Peter; Kenge, Donat Kuma-Kuma; Hunter, Paul R.

In: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 12, Nr. 10, 0006795, 2018.

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftA1: Web of Science-artikelOnderzoekpeer review

Harvard

Brainard, J, D'hondt, R, Ali, E, Van den Bergh, R, De Weggheleire, A, Baudot, Y, Patigny, F, Lambert, V, Zachariah, R, Maes, P, Kenge, DK-K & Hunter, PR 2018, 'Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study' PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 12, nr. 10, 0006795. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006795

APA

Brainard, J., D'hondt, R., Ali, E., Van den Bergh, R., De Weggheleire, A., Baudot, Y., ... Hunter, P. R. (2018). Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 12(10), [0006795]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006795

Vancouver

Brainard J, D'hondt R, Ali E, Van den Bergh R, De Weggheleire A, Baudot Y et al. Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2018;12(10). 0006795. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006795

Author

Brainard, Julii ; D'hondt, Rob ; Ali, Engy ; Van den Bergh, Rafael ; De Weggheleire, Anja ; Baudot, Yves ; Patigny, Frederic ; Lambert, Vincent ; Zachariah, Rony ; Maes, Peter ; Kenge, Donat Kuma-Kuma ; Hunter, Paul R. / Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study. In: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2018 ; Vol. 12, Nr. 10.

BibTeX

@article{af98b6d984b74ba7b2f064e6817acd69,
title = "Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study",
abstract = "During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the outbreak, demographic, environmental and exposure data were collected for 320 cases and 640 controls residing in the worst affected areas, using a structured interview questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Complete data were available for 956 respondents. Residents of areas with water supplied via gravity on the mains network were at much greater risk of disease acquisition (risk ratio = 6.20, 95')/X13.39-11.35) than residents of areas not supplied by this mains network. In the case control study, typhoid was found to be associated with ever using tap water from the municipal supply (OR = 4.29, 95{\%} CI 2.20-8.38). Visible urine or faeces in the latrine was also associated with increased risk of typhoid and having chosen a water source because it is protected was negatively associated. Knowledge that washing hands can prevent typhoid fever, and stated habit of handwashing habits before cooking or after toileting was associated with increased risk of disease. However, observed associations between handwashing or plate-sharing with disease risk could very likely be due to recall bias. This outbreak of typhoid fever was strongly associated with drinking water from the municipal drinking water supply, based on the descriptive and analytic epidemiology and the finding of high levels of faecal contamination of drinking water. Future outbreaks of potentially waterborne disease need an integrated response that includes epidemiology and environmental microbiology during early stages of the outbreak.",
keywords = "SALMONELLA-ENTERITIDIS VACCINE, PROTECTION, QUESTIONNAIRES, TYPHIMURIUM, INFECTION",
author = "Julii Brainard and Rob D'hondt and Engy Ali and {Van den Bergh}, Rafael and {De Weggheleire}, Anja and Yves Baudot and Frederic Patigny and Vincent Lambert and Rony Zachariah and Peter Maes and Kenge, {Donat Kuma-Kuma} and Hunter, {Paul R.}",
note = "CPDF",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pntd.0006795",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "PLoS Negl Trop Dis",
issn = "1935-2727",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "10",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: case control and ecological study

AU - Brainard, Julii

AU - D'hondt, Rob

AU - Ali, Engy

AU - Van den Bergh, Rafael

AU - De Weggheleire, Anja

AU - Baudot, Yves

AU - Patigny, Frederic

AU - Lambert, Vincent

AU - Zachariah, Rony

AU - Maes, Peter

AU - Kenge, Donat Kuma-Kuma

AU - Hunter, Paul R.

N1 - CPDF

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the outbreak, demographic, environmental and exposure data were collected for 320 cases and 640 controls residing in the worst affected areas, using a structured interview questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Complete data were available for 956 respondents. Residents of areas with water supplied via gravity on the mains network were at much greater risk of disease acquisition (risk ratio = 6.20, 95')/X13.39-11.35) than residents of areas not supplied by this mains network. In the case control study, typhoid was found to be associated with ever using tap water from the municipal supply (OR = 4.29, 95% CI 2.20-8.38). Visible urine or faeces in the latrine was also associated with increased risk of typhoid and having chosen a water source because it is protected was negatively associated. Knowledge that washing hands can prevent typhoid fever, and stated habit of handwashing habits before cooking or after toileting was associated with increased risk of disease. However, observed associations between handwashing or plate-sharing with disease risk could very likely be due to recall bias. This outbreak of typhoid fever was strongly associated with drinking water from the municipal drinking water supply, based on the descriptive and analytic epidemiology and the finding of high levels of faecal contamination of drinking water. Future outbreaks of potentially waterborne disease need an integrated response that includes epidemiology and environmental microbiology during early stages of the outbreak.

AB - During 2011 a large outbreak of typhoid fever affected an estimated 1430 people in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo. The outbreak started in military camps in the city but then spread to the general population. This paper reports the results of an ecological analysis and a case-control study undertaken to examine water and other possible transmission pathways. Attack rates were determined for health areas and risk ratios were estimated with respect to spatial exposures. Approximately 15 months after the outbreak, demographic, environmental and exposure data were collected for 320 cases and 640 controls residing in the worst affected areas, using a structured interview questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were estimated. Complete data were available for 956 respondents. Residents of areas with water supplied via gravity on the mains network were at much greater risk of disease acquisition (risk ratio = 6.20, 95')/X13.39-11.35) than residents of areas not supplied by this mains network. In the case control study, typhoid was found to be associated with ever using tap water from the municipal supply (OR = 4.29, 95% CI 2.20-8.38). Visible urine or faeces in the latrine was also associated with increased risk of typhoid and having chosen a water source because it is protected was negatively associated. Knowledge that washing hands can prevent typhoid fever, and stated habit of handwashing habits before cooking or after toileting was associated with increased risk of disease. However, observed associations between handwashing or plate-sharing with disease risk could very likely be due to recall bias. This outbreak of typhoid fever was strongly associated with drinking water from the municipal drinking water supply, based on the descriptive and analytic epidemiology and the finding of high levels of faecal contamination of drinking water. Future outbreaks of potentially waterborne disease need an integrated response that includes epidemiology and environmental microbiology during early stages of the outbreak.

KW - SALMONELLA-ENTERITIDIS VACCINE

KW - PROTECTION

KW - QUESTIONNAIRES

KW - TYPHIMURIUM

KW - INFECTION

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006795

DO - 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006795

M3 - A1: Web of Science-article

VL - 12

JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis

T2 - PLoS Negl Trop Dis

JF - PLoS Negl Trop Dis

SN - 1935-2727

IS - 10

M1 - 0006795

ER -

ID: 2813554