Rifampicin heteroresistance - where rifampicin-resistant and -susceptible tuberculosis (TB) bacilli co-exist - may result in failed standard TB treatment and potential spread of rifampicin-resistant strains. Detection of rifampicin heteroresistance in routine rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) allows for patients to receive prompt and effective multidrug-resistant-TB treatment, and may improve rifampicin-resistant TB control.The limit of detection (LOD) of rifampicin heteroresistance for phenotypic drug susceptibility testing by the proportion method is 1%, yet is insufficiently documented for RDTs. We therefore aimed to determine, for the four RDTs (XpertMTB/RIF, XpertMTB/RIF Ultra, GenoTypeMTBDRplusv2.0, and GenoscholarNTM+MDRTBII), the LOD per probe and mutation, validated by colony-forming-unit-counting and targeted deep sequencing (Deeplex-MycTB).We selected one rifampicin-susceptible and four rifampicin-resistant strains, with mutation D435V, H445D, H445Y, and S450L respectively, mixed them in various proportions in triplicate, tested them with each RDT, and determined the LODs per mutation type. Deeplex-MycTB revealed concordant proportions of the minority resistant variants in the mixtures. The Deeplex-MycTB-validated-LODs ranged from 20-80% for XpertMTB/RIF, 20-70% for Xpert Ultra, 5-10% for GenoTypeMTBDRplusv2.0, and 1-10% for GenoscholarNTM+MTBII for the different mutations.Deeplex-MycTB, GenoTypeMTBDRplusv2.0, and GenoscholarNTM+MDRTBII, provide explicit information on rifampicin heteroresistance for the most frequently detected mutations. Classic Xpert and Ultra report rifampicin heteroresistance as rifampicin resistance, while Ultra may denote rifampicin heteroresistance through 'mixed patterns' of wild-type and mutant melt probe melt peak temperatures.Overall, our findings inform end-users that the threshold for reporting resistance in case of rifampicin heteroresistance is the highest for Classic Xpert and Ultra, to resolve phenotypic and genotypic discordant rifampicin-resistant TB results.

Originele taal-2Engels
TijdschriftJournal of Clinical Microbiology
StatusE-publicatie voorafgaand op geprinte versie - 2019

ID: 3037339